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Distribusi Kekayaan di dalam Masyarakat

Distribusi kemakmuran di suatu negara tidak jauh dari hukum Pareto, yaitu hukum 80/20, artinya adalah 20% penduduk menguasai 80% kekayaan dan begitu juga sebaliknya 80% penduduk hanya menguasai 20% kekayaan. Sebagai contoh berikut di bawah tersedia data distribusi kekayaan di Amerika tahun 1983 – 2010

Total Net Worth/ Kekayaan Bersih adalah Total Aset dikurangi Total Hutang

Financial Wealth/ Kekayaan Financial adalah Kekayaan Bersih dikurangi Nilai Properti

Table : Distribution of net worth and financial wealth in theUnited States, 1983-2010
Total Net Worth
Top 1 percent Next 19 percent Bottom 80 percent
1983 33.8% 47.5% 18.7%
1989 37.4% 46.2% 16.5%
1992 37.2% 46.6% 16.2%
1995 38.5% 45.4% 16.1%
1998 38.1% 45.3% 16.6%
2001 33.4% 51.0% 15.6%
2004 34.3% 50.3% 15.3%
2007 34.6% 50.5% 15.0%
2010 35.4% 53.5% 11.1%
Financial (Non-Home) Wealth
Top 1 percent Next 19 percent Bottom 80 percent
1983 42.9% 48.4% 8.7%
1989 46.9% 46.5% 6.6%
1992 45.6% 46.7% 7.7%
1995 47.2% 45.9% 7.0%
1998 47.3% 43.6% 9.1%
2001 39.7% 51.5% 8.7%
2004 42.2% 50.3% 7.5%
2007 42.7% 50.3% 7.0%
2010 42.1% 53.5% 4.7%

Total assets are defined as the sum of: (1) the gross value of owner-occupied housing; (2) other real estate owned by the household; (3) cash and demand deposits; (4) time and savings deposits, certificates of deposit, and money market accounts; (5) government bonds, corporate bonds, foreign bonds, and other financial securities; (6) the cash surrender value of life insurance plans; (7) the cash surrender value of pension plans, including IRAs, Keogh, and 401(k) plans; (8) corporate stock and mutual funds; (9) net equity in unincorporated businesses; and (10) equity in trust funds.

Total liabilities are the sum of: (1) mortgage debt; (2) consumer debt, including auto loans; and (3) other debt. From Wolff (2004, 2007, 2010, & 2012).

sumber: http://www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html

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